Arbitration in India Principles and Laws

Arbitration in India: Principles and Laws

This article on ‘Arbitration in India: Principles and Laws‘ was written by Shashanki Kaushik, an intern at Legal Upanishad.


Arbitration is a method of dispute resolution that plays a pivotal role in India’s legal landscape. It offers an alternative to the often time-consuming and costly court litigation. Understanding the principles of arbitration law in India is essential for businesses, individuals, and legal professionals alike.

This article delves into the principles of arbitration law in India, providing an in-depth understanding of its legal framework, key provisions, relevant legislation, and landmark judgments. Arbitration has become a favoured alternative dispute resolution mechanism in India, and this article aims to discuss its intricacies and evolution.


Arbitration has a long history in India, with its roots in ancient practices like panchayats and amicable settlement of disputes. In the modern context, the legal framework for arbitration has evolved significantly, with the following key developments:


The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996

The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 is the principal legislation governing arbitration in India. This Act incorporates the UNCITRAL Model Law, ensuring compatibility with international standards. Key provisions of the Act include:

  • Definition of Arbitration (Section 2): The Arbitration and Conciliation Act defines arbitration as a process for the settlement of disputes through an arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators.
  • Appointment of Arbitrators (Section 11): This section outlines the procedure for appointing arbitrators, including their qualifications and removal.
  • Arbitral Tribunal’s Powers (Section 17): It grants the arbitral tribunal the authority to grant interim measures.
  • Challenge to Arbitral Award (Section 34): The Act specifies grounds for challenging arbitral awards, ensuring transparency and fairness.

Other Relevant Laws

Apart from the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, several other legislations intersect with arbitration principles, including:

  • Indian Contract Act, 1872: This act governs the validity of arbitration agreements and contracts.
  • Specific Relief Act, 1963: It deals with the grant of specific performance of contracts that contain an arbitration clause.
  • Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999: Relevant for international arbitration cases involving foreign exchange transactions.


  • Autonomy of Parties: One of the fundamental principles of arbitration in India is party autonomy. Parties have the freedom to choose the arbitrators, the rules governing the proceedings, and the place of arbitration.
  • Confidentiality: Arbitration proceedings in India are confidential. This ensures that disputes can be resolved discreetly, which is often preferred by businesses.
  • Fair and Impartial Tribunal: The Act mandates that arbitrators be impartial and independent. The principle of neutrality is crucial in ensuring a fair resolution.
  • Enforceability of Awards: Arbitral awards are enforceable in India under the New York Convention, making India a favourable destination for international arbitration.
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  • Section 9 (Interim Measures by Courts): This section empowers Indian courts to grant interim measures in support of arbitration proceedings. Courts can issue injunctions or orders for the preservation of assets.
  • Section 34 (Setting Aside Arbitral Awards): Section 34 allows parties to challenge arbitral awards on specified grounds, such as procedural impropriety or public policy violation.
  • Section 37 (Appeals): Section 37 outlines the limited grounds for appeal against orders of the arbitral tribunal.
  • Section 48 (Enforcement of Foreign Awards): This section governs the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in India, in accordance with the New York Convention.


  • Bharat Aluminium Co. v. Kaiser Aluminium Technical Services, Inc. (BALCO): In this case, the Supreme Court of India affirmed the principle of minimal judicial interference in arbitral awards. It clarified the scope of Section 34 regarding public policy violations.
  • Venture Global Engineering v. Satyam Computer Services Ltd.: This case emphasized the importance of party autonomy in choosing the seat of arbitration, reinforcing India’s pro-arbitration stance.
  • ONGC v. Saw Pipes Ltd.: The Supreme Court clarified the scope of public policy under Section 34 and held that awards could only be set aside if they violated the fundamental policy of Indian law.


  • The Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2019: This amendment introduced several significant changes to the arbitration landscape in India, including the establishment of the Arbitration Council of India.
  • Digitization of Arbitration Proceedings: In recent years, India has made strides in digitizing arbitration proceedings, promoting efficiency and transparency.


Arbitration law in India is a dynamic field that continues to evolve, aligning with global best practices. Understanding its principles, relevant legislation, and landmark judgments is essential for anyone involved in dispute resolution. As India strives to become a preferred destination for arbitration, it remains committed to providing a robust legal framework that encourages arbitration as an effective means of resolving disputes.


  • Shahid Parvez, Development of Arbitration Law in India, SSRN E-Journal (2009)
  • Ankita Ghosh, The Journey of Arbitration Law in India, 3(4) International Journal of Law Management and Humanities (2020)
  • Sneha Jaiswal, Arbitration Law in India – an Overview, SSRN E-Journal (2020)