Process of Making Laws in India

Process of Making Laws in India: A 7-Step Procedure

This article on ‘Process of Making Laws in India’ was written by Shashanki Kaushik, an intern at Legal Upanishad.


The process of making laws in India is a comprehensive and intricate procedure. Rooted in the country’s democratic principles, this process ensures that proposed legislation is subject to rigorous scrutiny and debate before it becomes law. India’s legal framework, shaped by its Constitution, defines a systematic approach to law-making. This article endeavours to elucidate this process, breaking it down into seven distinct steps while emphasising the crucial role of the President in the final enactment of a bill. The legislative process is a cornerstone of any democratic nation, and India, with its diverse and complex society, is no exception.

This article provides a thorough examination of the law-making procedure in India, encompassing the various stages of bill introduction, discussion, and enactment. The crucial role of the President in this process is discussed, with a focus on constitutional provisions. Furthermore, the article delves into the seven-step law-making procedure, scrutinising each stage’s complexities. By the end, the reader will have an in-depth understanding of the process of making laws in India.

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The Constitutional Framework of Making Laws in India

A. Role of the President

India’s legislative process begins with the introduction of a bill. Once a bill has been passed by both Houses of Parliament, it is sent to the President for their assent. The Indian Constitution, adopted in 1950, provides the President with significant powers concerning the legislative process. The cornerstone of the president’s role in lawmaking is outlined in Article 111 of the Indian Constitution.

This article stipulates that once a bill has been passed by both Houses of Parliament, it is presented to the President for their assent. The President is then presented with three choices: to provide assent, withhold assent, or return the bill with recommendations. This discretion vested in the President is a fundamental aspect of India’s democratic checks and balances. One of the most critical aspects of the President’s role in India’s legislative process is the power of the “Pocket Veto.”

While the President is constitutionally obligated to act on bills presented, this power allows them to withhold assent indefinitely, effectively blocking the bill from becoming law. This power is exercised under specific conditions and demands careful consideration of the bill’s content and constitutional implications.

B. The President’s Discretion

The discretionary powers of the President in the legislative process are of paramount importance. The president’s role in law-making is not merely ceremonial. It is a position imbued with the responsibility of ensuring that bills presented to them align with the principles of the Constitution. When a bill is sent for presidential assent, it is not a rubber-stamping process. The President reviews the bill, contemplates its impact, and assesses whether it adheres to the Constitution.

The president can withhold assent for various reasons. These might include constitutional concerns, conflicts with fundamental rights, or issues related to the legislative process itself. The President can also return a bill to Parliament with recommendations, seeking clarifications or revisions. This power ensures that the bill’s content is thoroughly examined and refined to uphold constitutional standards.

The Seven-Step Law-Making Procedure

  • Introduction Stage:

1st Step- A Bill’s Introduction

A bill is typically introduced by a minister or a member of parliament in charge of the bill. The process involves seeking the leave of the house for its introduction. This stage is marked by debates, discussions, and the bill’s objectives and intent.

  • Discussion Stage:

2nd Step- Options for the House

During the discussion stage, the house has three options: to proceed directly with the consideration, refer the bill to standing committees for detailed examination, or circulate the bill for eliciting general opinions. The article explores the implications and considerations for each of these options.

3rd Step- Committee Scrutiny

In-depth examination of the bill by standing committees is a vital aspect of the legislative process. This phase delves into the role, composition, and impact of these committees in shaping the final form of the bill.

4th Step- Clause-by-Clause Consideration

The bill undergoes a thorough clause-by-clause consideration. This stage is crucial for incorporating amendments and revisions, which can significantly impact the final version of the bill.

  • Voting Stage

5th Step- The Third Reading

The voting stage marks the final reading of the bill. This is a stage of restricted debate, focusing on either supporting the bill’s passage or advocating for its rejection. The article examines the significance of this final debate and its impact on the legislative process.

  • Rajya Sabha

6th Step- The Role of the Upper House

Once a bill is passed in the first house, it is transmitted to the Rajya Sabha. The upper house goes through the same stages as the lower house. This section delves into the unique role played by the Rajya Sabha in the legislative process.

  • Joint Session

7th Step- Resolving Deadlocks

In cases of deadlock between the two houses or when more than six months elapsed in the other house, the President may summon a joint session.


The law-making procedure in India is a meticulous and well-defined process that is integral to the functioning of a democratic nation. Bills, as draft statutes, must navigate through a series of stages, each with its own set of complexities and nuances. At the heart of this process is the role of the President, who has the power to provide assent, withhold assent, or return bills with recommendations.

This article has provided a comprehensive overview of the seven-step law-making procedure in India, offering insight into the complexities of each stage. The constitutional provisions that empower the President in the legislative process have been examined, as well as the discretionary aspects of this role.

In conclusion, the law-making process in India exemplifies the principles of democracy and the rule of law. It is a testament to the intricate and carefully balanced structure of the Indian Constitution. By understanding the nuances of this process, we gain a deeper appreciation of how laws are created in one of the world’s most populous and diverse nations. It is the duty of the President, Members of Parliament, and all stakeholders to ensure that this process is executed in the best interests of the nation, upholding the principles of justice and democracy that are at the core of India’s legal system.

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